They look like something you can see in a distant galaxy.
But these incredible satellite images show the devastating impact carved by asteroids and meteorites on the Earth’s surface, resulting in the formation of many different beautiful sites.
Spectacular photos feature the world’s first atlas in different pits that can be seen around the world.
Incredible satellite imagery shows the devastating impact of asteroids and meteorite carvings on the Earth’s surface, such as the Shoemaker in Western Australia (pictured)
The world’s first atlas of glaciers such as the Lonar in India features eye-catching photographs (pictured)
600-page dome, more than 200 sites created by meteorites and comets colliding with the planet, in high-resolution landscape maps and satellite imagery.
It includes detailed geographical descriptions and photos of breathtaking rocky terrain.
Entitled Terrain Impact Structures, the two volumes include ‘essential details’ about each impact valley, which have now disappeared from view.
Most craters last only a few thousand years to fill or erode, and can only be identified by the unique changes that occur in the ground minerals from the shock wave created based on the impact.
Professor Thomas Kengman, an associate professor at the University of Freiburg in Germany, said: ‘Creating craters under the influence of asteroids and comets has always been a fundamental process in the solar system.
The 600-page dome offers more than 200 sites, such as the Serra da Gangalha in Brazil (pictured) where planets and comets collide with the planet
Between 2010 and 2016, researchers used a low-orbit radar satellite called the Tantem-X to measure every known abyss on the Earth’s surface with an accuracy of up to a meter. Image: Manichaean crater in Quebec, Canada
‘As the planets grew along with their moons, these influences played a key role in increasing planetary mass, shaping the surfaces of planetary bodies, and later influencing their development.’
‘Large meteorite impacts eventually affected the development of life on Earth.’
Between 2010 and 2016, researchers used a low-orbit radar satellite called the Tantem-X to measure every known abyss on the Earth’s surface with an accuracy of up to a meter.
These measurements enabled them to create a digital topographic model of each known abyss, including the Manicoan Gorge in Canada, the Zero Do Jaraw in Brazil, the Shoemaker in Western Australia, and the Queni-Fada in Chad, Africa.
Professor Kengman said: ‘Over the past 50 years lunar and space travel has provided us with detailed maps of the old, impact-crater-covered surfaces of our solar system neighbors.
Most pits (pictured), such as the Rice in Germany, last only a few thousand years before being filled or eroded, and can only be identified by distinct changes in the ground minerals from the shock wave created based on the impact.
‘As far as the Earth is concerned, the global impact crater record represents only a fraction of the explosion that our planet must endure.’
The books also introduce readers to the basic principles of pitfalls, radar remote sensing, and tandem-X work and fieldwork by researchers.
The Atlas also features famous craters such as the Wreyford and Sixth Cave on the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, which put an end to dinosaurs.
When a meteorite or asteroid struck South Africa about 2.02 billion years ago, I thought the world’s largest and oldest crater, Wrafford, must have been 185 miles across and 25 miles deep.
The books also introduce readers to the basic principles of pitfalls, radar remote sensing, and tandem-X work and fieldwork by researchers. Picture: Quenti-Fada Groove in Sat.
It is difficult to quantify how large these collisions really are because the craters have shrunk and in many cases disappeared.
Professor Kengman said: ‘The surface of our planet is constantly changing, and after a few thousand years the craters will disappear.
‘Some of them have formed a lake or they are buried and others are completely eroded.
‘But the shock wave creates unique changes in the minerals in the ground, so even if you don’t see the abyss, there is a shock signature.
‘What we are compiling in this atlas are confirmed attack structures, even those you have not seen.’
These measurements enabled them to create a digital topography of every known abyss, including the Manicogan Gorge in Canada and the Cerro do Jarav (pictured) in Brazil.
The largest crater in the UK is underwater, about 25 miles off the northwest coast of Scotland, and therefore not included in the Atlas.
The first underwater hole, discovered in 2008, was carved at a speed of 40,000 miles per hour in the outer Hebrides between the islands of Louis and Harris when three billion tons of rock was crushed into the Mitch Basin.
When asked what his favorite ditch was, Professor Kengman said: ‘Sometimes under adventurous conditions, I have a special relationship to those ditches where I did fieldwork.
‘Australian ditches often require helicopter access, and then you are alone for two weeks to investigate mapping and trench structures.
‘That’s so awesome.’
The Atlas also features famous craters such as the Wreyford and Sixth Cave on the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico, which put an end to dinosaurs. Image: Labbjarvi crater in Finland
He added: The investigation into the morphological spectacle abyssal dome in Utah in Canyonlands National Park on the Colorado Plateau was also very good.
‘This crater is deeply eroded and provides complete 3D insights into what happens to the rock beneath a crater.
‘By the way, this crater was originally thought to be a salt dome until the traumatic minerals were detected and the effect of its impact proved.’
Books that come in slipcase are available for purchase at the publisher’s website Verlock Piff.